CBD IN HISTORY - What Do We Know So Far About CBD?
CBD may be considered an emerging trend, but it has a rich history dating back to ancient China around 6000 B.C. with medical applications appearing around 2700 B.C. Throughout the ages, cannabis appears as a remedy utilized by many civilizations including those of Ancient Greece, Egypt and the Roman Empire.
By the 16th century, cannabis was being cultivated throughout Europe and arrived to the North American colonies in the 1600s. During the 18th century, hemp’s medicinal uses were documented in The New England Dispensatory and Edinburgh New Dispensatory—two highly respected pharmacopeias of the day.
In the early 20th century, medicines such as opioids began to be developed, which resulted in the decline of cannabis-based preparations used for pain relief. The 1930s ushered in the war on cannabis and the cultivation of cannabis became illegal. In 1970, cannabis cultivation was banned by the Controlled Substances Act, which listed cannabis—both hemp and marijuana—as Schedule I substances with “no medicinal benefits” and a “high risk of dependence.”
However, as the 1970s progressed, cannabis extracts were once again being used for healing. A quarter of a century later, in 1996, the state of California legalized the medicinal use of cannabis for a list of serious medical conditions.
CBD has been rapidly gaining acceptance in the U.S. as a result of media coverage by respected health experts such as Dr. Sanjay Gupta, a neurosurgeon and medical reporter. Modern technology has provided methods of refining and isolating CBD, and even increasing the bioavailability (the amount of a substance which enters the circulation to enable an active effect) of CBD oil through technologies such as nanoemulsions, which make CBD water-soluble and increases its potency. In December of 2018, the 2018 Farm Bill legalized industrial hemp as crop, consequently boosting the sales and distribution of CBD in both natural and mainstream retail stores. National drugstore chains such as Walgreens and CVS are currently selling CBD in select markets.
CBD DEMYSTIFIED - What Is All The Confusion About CBD?
With increased popularity and attention around CBD comes both documented research and troubling misconceptions. The onslaught of information, whether fact or fiction, adds a level of complexity when attempting to learn more about CBD and its potential health benefits. At The Vape Society CBD, we aim to provide clarity to those misconceptions and provide you with an accurate picture of what this age-old cannabis compound is all about.
Cannabidiol, more commonly known as CBD, is a compound produced by the variety of the cannabis plant often referred to as hemp. You will find CBD in a variety of products including tinctures, drops, edibles, topicals and pet care items.
So why is there is so much confusion surrounding CBD? Until recently, it was categorized as a controlled substance, which rendered it illegal. Like marijuana, CBD comes from the cannabis plant. However, unlike marijuana, the hemp strain of the cannabis plant contains little to no THC (the psychoactive property that contributes to the feeling of being high).
Another confusing distinction to understand is the difference between hemp oil and CBD oil. Hemp oil is the oil extracted from hemp seeds and is generally used for cooking and as a dietary supplement. Hemp oil does not contain CBD or other cannabinoids. CBD oil, on the other hand, is made by extracting the essential oils from the plant’s flower clusters. It contains cannabinoids, terpenes and other active compounds.
To further distill these two facts… CBD will not get you high and hemp oil does not have the same potential healing properties of CBD.
HOW CBD WORKS - What Does CBD Do Exactly?
The Human Endocannabinoid System (ECS)
The human Endocannabinoid system (ECS) has two components: CB1 and CB2. CB1 receptors are mostly found in the brain and central nervous system and, to some extent, other tissues. CB2 receptors can be found in immune cells, the gastrointestinal track and the peripheral nervous system. Consider Cannabinoids and human receptors to have a lock-and-key relationship. Endocannabinoids bind with cannabinoid receptors and send a message to the body to do specific things. This could potentially aid in a variety of human function including appetite, sleep, mood, pain, metabolism, immune response, the lifespan of cells and much more. This is the reason that CBD, both through documented research and anecdotal evidence, points to an effect on such a wide range of conditions.
The Entourage Effect
The combination of cannabinoids and terpenes is known as the entourage effect. In the case of cannabis, these cannabinoids and terpenes work together to increase the healing benefits of the plants individual components. More research is needed to determine the specific role that terpenes play in the overall effects of CBD oil, but it appears that terpenes work in concert with cannabinoids to deliver a more robust effect than CBD alone.
Terpenes are a class of volatile hydrocarbon compounds produced by the cannabis plant as well as most other plants. Terpenes are significant because they perform synergistically with the phytocannabinoids in the cannabis plant and have their own unique healing benefits as well. There are 200 unique terpenes in cannabis with the four most common being limonene, B-caryophyllene, linalool and B-myrcene. An example of this synergist relationship can be illustrated by limonene, which is believed to work with CBD to alleviate depression and anxiety.
Cannabinoids are active compounds produced by all cannabis plants. They account for most of the intended health benefits of cannabis. Cannabinoids found in plants are technically called phytocannabinoids and they mimic compounds, which we call endocannabinoids. Endocannabinoids are created by the body from foods such as fatty acids (i.e. salmon, nuts, seeds, etc.).
Other Cannabidiol Functions
Although cannabinoids are mainly known for the role they play in the human endocannabinoid system, they also function in other ways. For example, cannabinoids are said to have antioxidant effects. Antioxidants are molecules in cells that prevent free radicals from doing damage. Vitamin C is an example of an antioxidant. This is why it’s suggested that CBD can help support overall health and wellness.
TYPES OF CBD - Why So Many Different Products?
Not all CBD is created equal and therefore it’s important to understand the terminology and product descriptions as you prepare to purchase. Outlined below are some of the various types of CBD: